The islands are the Galapagos, situated in the Pacific Ocean roughly 1000
kilometers west of mainland Ecuador. The image is oriented with north
toward the bottom and was acquired during Terra orbit 9878.
The answers to this quiz appear in blue below each question.
1. There are no endemic species of cactus on any of the islands.
Endemic genera of cacti include Brachycereus and Jasminocereus, the lava
and candelabra cactus, respectively.
2. Flamingos, whose diets include crustaceans, tiny fish, and algae, can be found
wading in brackish lagoons.
Greater flamingos are primarily seen on Floreana and other southern islands.
3. A change in ocean temperature associated with an episodic disruption in atmospheric
circulation led to a precipitous decline in the local penguin population.
The Galapagos penguin population declined alarmingly during 1972 and 1998, when
nutrients and fish were less abundant due to warmer surface waters associated with
an El Niņo event.
4. Discovery of the islands is generally attributed to a 16th century Spanish missionary
whose vessel veered off its intended course.
The islands were officially discovered in 1535 by the Spanish missionary Fray Tomas de
Berlanga, the Bishop of Panama. His ship veered off course while on a journey from
Panama to what is now Peru.
5. A recurring and dramatic geological event took place on the westernmost island in
1988, 1991 and 1995, causing injury or death to over 2,000 people.
The volcano of the westernmost island of Fernandina erupted 1988, 1991 and 1995, but
there are no permanent human settlements on this island.
6. Several plant species are endangered due to decimation by goats and competition with
Invasive plants such as quinine and guava trees, and invasive animals such as goats,
feral cattle, and the cottony cushion scale insect are contributing to the endangered
status of native plant species such as the endemic daisy tree and the Floreana flax.
7. Within the archipelago there are at least half a dozen freshwater lakes with diameters
exceeding 250 meters.
El Junco Lake on San Cristobal island (at 270 meters in diameter) is the only large
freshwater lake in the Galapagos archipelago.
8. A particular endangered animal sub-species is survived by a single male, and attempts
at breeding have so far proved unsuccessful.
The Pinta island subspecies of Galapagos Giant Tortoise (Geochelone elephantopus
abingdoni) are survived by a single male named "Lonesome George". Attempts to mate
Lonesome George with female tortoises of the closest subspecies have not been successful.
9. Chapter 13 of a book written in the mid-nineteenth century by a native of Shrewsbury,
England is primarily concerned with the islands of this archipelago.
Naturalist Charles Darwin (a native of Shrewsbury, England) recounted his explorations in
"Voyage of the Beagle", but it is Chapter 17 of this book that focuses on the Galapagos.
(Note: After publishing this quiz it was discovered that Chapter 13 of the 6th edition of
Darwin's "Origin of Species" also briefly discusses the Galapagos, so TRUE is also accepted.)
MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The
Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center,
Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of